Dark Web

The Dark Web, What is it?

The entirety of the web that is not accessible by search engines. Regular browsers, like Google and Bing, search the so-called “surface web", defined by public links, and the search stops there. The "Deep Web" and "Dark Web" are more in-depth, allow for privacy, and serve different purposes. When discussing them, it is important to remember their distinctions, as there are many. 

The "deep" portion of the web is just like it sounds — below the surface and not completely dark. For instance, online banking pages, legal and government documents, or scientific reports have no reason to be indexed. Personal emails and secure information, like bank statements, can also not be searched.  

The dark web, however, represents a sliver of the deep web. While many of its websites are generally harmless, it is often associated with illegal activities, and this can lead to serious consequences. Like the keep web, this portion of the web is unindexed. However, the websites are also encrypted, and this level of anonymity is why it is often dedicated to criminal activities. These sites are hosted on special domains, and you need special software to access them, such as the Freenet or TOR browser. 

Dark Web vs. Deep Web Inforgraphic

Data Breaches

A data breach, also known as a data leak or data spill, is an event that includes the illegal inspection, access or retrievial of data by a person, an application or otherwise a service. It is a form of security breach that is intended to steal or broadcast the data to an unsafe or illicit site.

Data Capture

Data capture, or electronic data capture, is the process of extracting information from a document and converting it into data readable by a computer.

Data Enrichment

Data enrichment is defined as the merging of third-party data from an external authoritative source with an existing database of first-party customer data. Brands do this to enhance the data they already possess so they can make more informed decisions with a larger pool of higher quality data.

Data Points

A data point is defined as a distinct component of data. In a broad common sense, every single detail is considered as a data point. In an arithmetical or systematic framework, a data point is typically imitative in terms of size or investigation and can also be exemplified in an arithmetic and/or detailed manner.

Data Protection Act

The Data Protection Act (DPA) is a United Kingdom law passed in 1988. It was established to manage how individual or consumer data could be used by any organizations or government organizations. It protects the public and also provide some instructions on how to use the data people's data.

Data Provider

The term data provider is used to describe the process of retrieving data from relational data sources in non-real time applications. The data provider manages the data at each stage by mapping the logical column definitions in the application view to physical table columns in the customer database.

Data Science

Data science is a multi- disciplinary area that practices scientific techniques, procedures, systems and even algorithms to excerpt data and visions from arranged and unarranged data. Data science intends to combine the digits, data analysis, mechanism knowledge and their associated approaches, to recognize and investigate real events within the data itself.

Data Security Standard

The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely recognized set of rules and policies proposed to improve the security of cash, debit and credit card transactions and also to protect credit cardholders, to prevent the mismanagement of their private data. The PCI DSS was formed in association with four major credit-card companies: Visa, MasterCard, Discover and American Express in 2004.

Data Set

Data set is an assortment of data. Usually a data set match up to the subjects of a distinct database table, or otherwise a particular arithmetical data matrix, where each single column of the table indicates a specific variable, and each row match up to a set of affiliates of the query data set.

Day of the Jackal Fraud

Day of the Jackal Fraud is an identity fraud tecnique in which the birth certificate of a dead child is used to obtain a passport or some other certified identity document. This kind of fraud is entitled based on the book which has the same name/title, written by Fredrick Forsyth.

Debit Card

A debit card, also known as a bank card, plastic card, or check card is a payment card that can be used as an alternative to cash when making any purchase transactions. Physically, it looks quite similar to a credit card, however, unlike a credit card, the money is transferred directly from the bank account of cardholders when making a purchase transaction.

Debit Card Fraud

Debit card fraud is any kind of fraud where debit card accounts are accessed by fraudsters without the account owner's authorization in order to manipulate or usually drain their funds. Debit card fraud is quiet easy to commit due to the fact that a debit card's information can be gained with ease.

Dedicated Hosting

A dedicated hosting service, also known as a dedicated server or a managed hosting service, is basically an Internet hosting structure where the customer leases an entire server not shared with anyone else. This is even more flexible when compared to shared hosting, since with dedicated hosting organizations have full access and control over the server(s) and all hardware involved with them.

Dedicated IP

A dedicated IP address is defined as an exclusive Internet address which is exclusively and completely assigned to a distinct hosting account. Only corporate hosting accounts are qualified for dedicated IP addresses. Shared hosting accounts that share the server's IP address cannot have a dedicated IP.

Deep Fake

A technology that overlays a video with different audio or video, in order to make a real-looking video of somebody saying or doing something. A famous example could be a deepfake of Nancy Pelosi (in May 2019) that caught a lot of news attention before being recognized as an authentic-seeming deepfake.

Deep Learning

Deep learning is an artificial intelligence function that imitates the workings of the human brain in processing data and creating patterns for use in decision making. Deep learning is a subset of machine learning in artificial intelligence (AI) that has networks capable of learning unsupervised from data that is unstructured or unlabeled.

Deep Web

The Deep Web, What is it?

The entirety of the web that is not accessible by search engines. Regular browsers, like Google and Bing, search the so-called “surface web", defined by public links, and the search stops there. The "Deep Web" and "Dark Web" are more in-depth, allow for privacy, and serve different purposes. When discussing them, it is important to remember their distinctions, as there are many. 

The "deep" portion of the web is just like it sounds — below the surface and not completely dark. For instance, online banking pages, legal and government documents, or scientific reports have no reason to be indexed. Personal emails and secure information, like bank statements, can also not be searched.  

The dark web represents a sliver of the deep web, and while many of its websites are generally harmless, it is often associated with illegal activities, only accessible via the Tor browser, and such sites can lead to serious consequences.Dark Web vs. Deep Web Inforgraphic

Definition - Data Mining

Data mining is the process of investigating concealed configurations of data rendering at different viewpoints for classifying valuable data, which is gathered and collected in standard zones, such as data warehouses, for effective investigation, data mining systems, assisting the corporate decision-making process plus further data needs in order to finally reduce costs and raise revenue.

Definition - Email Verification

Email verification is a popular method of authentication that will ask a consumer to verify that it is really them trying to make a purchase by sending them an email with a link attached. Clicking on the link allows a business to see that the person making the purchase is someone who can access that email address.

Definition - Gaming

Gaming is defined as the act of playing electronic games, whether by the use of consoles, PCs, cell phones or other intermediate tools. Although gaming is usually an introverted recreation, multiplayer online video games have become a popular hobby.

Definition - Government

The word government refers to a group of people that governs a community or unit. A government sets and administers public policy and exercises executive, political and sovereign power through customs, institutions, and laws within a state.

Definition - ISP Monitoring

ISP monitoring is the practice through which ISPs record information about your online connections and activities. That means that everything from your search history to your email conversations are monitored and logged by your Internet service provider.

Definition - Nonrepudiation

Nonrepudiation is the assurance that somebody can't deny something. Typically, nonrepudiation refers to the ability to ensure that a party of a contract or a communication cannot deny the authenticity of their signature on a document or the sending of a message that they originated. To repudiate means to deny.

Definition - Phone Verification

It is the process of identifying if a number used by a user is valid or not, as well as if a phone number being used is the phone number of the person trying to use it. Phone number verification is used in different forms of multi-factor authentication.

Definition - Return Fraud

Return fraud is actually an online scam which is committed when a person purchases an item from a retail store without even wanting to use it. For instance, if a person is buying an item just to return it back then it is return fraud and it even expands to the use of duplicate receipts for obtaining money back. It is the act of defrauding a retail store via the return process. There are various ways in which this crime is committed. For example, the offender may return stolen merchandise to secure cash, or steal receipts or receipt tape to enable a falsified return, or to use somebody else's receipt to try to return an item picked up from a store shelf.

Definition - Social Media Intelligence

Social media intelligence refers to the collective tools and solutions that allow organizations to begin conversations, respond to social signals and synthesize social data points into meaningful trends and analysis based on the user's needs.

Definition - Telecommunications

Telecommunications refers to the exchange of information by electronic and electrical means over a significant distance. A complete telecommunication arrangement is made up of two or more stations equipped with transmitter and receiver devices.

Denial of Service Attack (DDoS)

A denial-of-service or DoS is any category of attack in which hackers or attackers endeavor to prevent authentic users from retrieving the service. Within a DoS attack, the hacker or attacker typically sends extreme messages requesting the network or server to validate the requirements that actually have unacceptable arrival addresses, which can overload a system and block even authentic users from being validated to access the service.

Derived Identification

Derived Identification is the term for a unique verification device that is stored within your phone, and is used to identify that a person logging into something or making a purchase has access that phone at that moment. Its primary purpose is simply for authorization purposes, like a kind of multi-factor authentication.

Device Cloning

Device cloning is the practice of producing an accurate copy of any application driver. The term can be used to indicate a body, software design or an application that has roles and behavior related to another body or application driver, however, it does not comprise the real source code of body or the apprehensive program.

Device Emulator

A device emulator is defined as a software or hardware that allows a computer system (named host) to perform as a different computer system (named guest). A device emulator generally allows the host system to use the software or peripheral devices intended for the guest system. This system allows fraudsters to repeat multiple attempts at login, signup or payment with with different parameters so they don’t get blocked, as they make it seem as if a different computer is continuing to attempt the log-ins.

Device fingerprinting

Device fingerprinting is described as a method that is used to forensically recognize an electronical device on the Internet. Device fingerprinting is also able to identify exclusive mobile devices as well as computer devices through their different features with a rational grade of conviction. The device's fingerprints are built with using the collected data on software and hardware used by a website visitor.

Device ID

A device ID or device identification is a unique number related to a cell phone or to the handheld device itself. Device IDs are separate from the hardware serial numbers. It could be a mixture of a number of elements and it is also able to include an inception to allow incomplete advancements.

Device Intelligence

An intelligent device is basically any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its own computing capability. The existing grade of intelligent devices is quite wide-ranging, and in addition to personal and handheld computers, the almost infinite list of possible intelligent devices includes cars, medical instruments, geological equipment, and home appliances.

Digital Identity

A digital identity is a network or an online identity that has been approved or applied for in cyberspace by a person, business or also electronic device. These mentioned users may also progress above a single digital identity and do so with various groups. In terms of digital identity management, the main areas of focus are security and confidentiality.

Digital Signature

A digital signature, also known as an electronic signature, proves the legitimacy of an electric file or text in digital communication and uses encryption methods to keep the content of the file secure. Digital signatures are used in e-commerce, software dissemination, economic dealings and other circumstances where counterfeiting or interfering may otherwise be possible.

Digital Wallets

A digital wallet is basically a software-based structure designed for building e-commerce transactions. With the use of a digital portfolio, online acquisitions can be made simply by using computers or smartphones. Generally, users’ bank accounts are linked to their digital wallet as well. In a digital wallet system, user identifications are securely saved and approved in all transactions.


In finance, disintermediation is described as the withdrawal of cash from intermediate financial associations, like banks, investments and loan relatives, to endow them openly. In general, disintermediation is the procedure of eradicating the trader or intermediary from the forthcoming transactions. Disintermediation is generally completed to invest in implements that produce higher profits.


A credit card dispute refers to the process of denying charges to a credit card for whatever reason. Billing errors may consist of custodies for products which you have ordered but never received, charges for products that you have returned, or charges that you never authorized.

Diverting funds

Diverting funds is defined as the use of funds by the debtor in defiance of the authorized terms of the moneylender, in a number of circumstances such as the extension of the credit facility, shifting the funds to its subsidiaries or other companies, and various other circumstances which are not in compliance with the authorized terms.

Domain Name

A domain name is a tag that recognizes a network domain: a discrete cluster of computers under a fundamental management or authority. Within the Internet, domain names are designed by the guidelines as well as the procedures included in the Domain Name System (DNS). Any name listed and registered in the DNS is considered as a domain name.

Door to Door Magazine Sales Fraud

Magazine sales fraud usually starts with a simple knock on the door with a person trying to sell a magazines to “increase the money” intended for a donations, charity, or other superficial earnest reasons. The customers who pay to sign up every so often report that they do not receive anything in return.

Doorway Domain

Doorway domains are created so that they positionate well in search engines results aimed at specific keywords, and then are used as an entry point over which visitors must pass to reach to the main domain. By matching a certain number of pages to a site designed for search engine optimization determinations, a different site is set aside to be totally improved.

Doorway Page

Doorway pages are web pages created in order to measure the influence of search engine indexes (spamdexing). A doorway page influences the index of a search engine by introducing results for specific sentences and at the same time directing the visitors to a dissimilar page.

Drop Address

"Drop Address" - What is it?

A "drop address" is the address where fraudsters send goods purchased illegally (for instance with a stolen card).

While having a secondary address or P.O. box is entirely legal, the distinction for "drop addresses" falls under the purpose of the address, and the means by which the goods shipped there were purchased.

This kind of scheme is often well planned and executed. Some will go as far as making an abandoned house look lived in. Examples of this could be mowing the lawn, plugging in electricity generator to make the property seem lived in. 

Accomplices in drop address scams are often unaware they are helping fraudsters. They are often recruited through online job offers. The fraudster pretends to be in a different country, and offers to pay the hired person to forward them the stolen goods.

Legal Concerns

Legally, this kind of fraud often falls under the classification of "access device fraud", which is a serious sentence due to the severe risks it can pose to other citizens

Under New York law, for example, an access device can be a card, plate, account number, or any other means of account access. Essentially, information that can be used to obtain money, goods, or services or initiate a transfer of funds. In New York State, it is a Class A misdemeanor, punishable by 1 year in prison and/or a fine of more than $1,000.

Criminal Use of an access device in the first degree offers worse consequences. It applies when a person knowingly uses an access device, without the owner’s consent. The consequences surmount when the fraudster uses this device to unlawfully obtain telecommunications services with a value more than one thousand dollars. This is considered a Class E felony that can result in up to 4 years in prison and/or a $5,000 fine.

We've provided a brief breakdown below.

Drop Address Information Infographic

Despite the risks, this occurs more frequently than you might think. Contact Fraud.net to schedule a demo of our anti-fraud prevention system. Our system also includes extensive address and identity verification, to combat drop addresses and access device fraud.

Dumpster Diving

The practice of rummaging through someone’s garbage bins to find personal information (account numbers, PINs, passwords). Fraudsters often combine digital attacks and real-life information gathering. This is why it is recommended to shared important documents before discarding them.

Duplicate Payment Schemes

Duplicate Payment schemes are types of fraud where the fraudster will attempt to have someone pay a second time for goods or services already paid for a first time.