I2P Anonymous Proxy

The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer to peer communication. Anonymous connections are achieved by encrypting the user's traffic (by using end-to-end encryption), and sending it through a volunteer-run network of roughly 55,000 computers distributed around the world.


Identification (ID)

Identification is the process by which something denotes another object as being a part of a certain category. A human could simply be identified as a human, or could be identified as their role or profession, or by their name; an object could have multiple identifications. In the world of fraud, identificarion is a term brought up often, as people have their identity "stolen", which is when others pretend to be you in for malicious purposes.


Identity and Access Management

Identity and access management (IAM) is a framework for business processes, policies and technologies that facilitates the management of electronic or digital identities. With an IAM framework in place, information technology (IT) managers can control user access to critical information within their organizations.


Identity Fraud

Identity fraud is the situation where a fraudster uses the personal information of a victim, without any approval, to perform a criminal action or to mislead or defraud the other person. Most identity fraud is dedicated to the use of financial benefit, such as access to a credit card, a bank account, or even a victim's loan accounts.


Identity Provider

An identity provider is a federation partner that vouches for the identity of a user. The identity provider authenticates the user and provides an authentication token (that is, information that verifies the authenticity of the user) to the service provider.


Identity Spoofing

Identity Spoofing refers to the action of assuming (i.e., taking on) the identity of some other entity (human or non-human) and then using that identity to accomplish a goal. An adversary may craft messages that appear to come from a different principle or use stolen / spoofed authentication credentials. Alternatively, an adversary may intercept a message from a legitimate sender and attempt to make it look like the message comes from them without changing its content.


Identity Theft

Identity theft refers to the act of accessing and acquiring elements of another person's identity (i.e. name, date of birth, billing address, etc.) in order to commit identity fraud. Identity theft can take place whether the victim is alive or deceased. Once a person’s identity data is obtained, the data can be monetized by gaining access to their accounts, stealing their resources or obtaining their credit and other benefits. Identity theft (in combination with, and often used interchangeably with, identity fraud) is one of the fastest-growing crimes globally. A criminal can also use stolen identity information to hijack a consumer accounts, commonly referred to as "account takeover".


Improper Disclosures

Improper disclosure refers to when information is mistakenly shown to somebody that has not been authorized by the appropriate people to see it. The term usually relates to medical disclosure, when a persons personal health information is improperly disclosed to somebody.


InfoSec (Information Security)

InfoSec, short for Information Security, refers to the discipline of defending information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modi cation, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction.


Insider Threat

An insider threat can happen when someone close to an organization with authorized access misuses that access to negatively impact the organization’s critical information or systems. This person does not necessarily need to be an employee – third party vendors, contractors, and partners could pose a threat as well.


Instagram scammer

An Instagram scam could be described a scheme fraudsters perform through the use of social media, such as Instagram, or other related applications in the smartphone, in order to gain access to confidential and private information, money or encrypted monetary data with the use of high-level social engineering.


Insurance Fraud

Insurance fraud is any act committed to defraud an insurance process. This occurs when a claimant attempts to obtain some benefit or advantage they are not entitled to, or when an insurer knowingly denies some benefit that is due. There are two types of insurance fraud: hard fraud, which occurs when someone deliberately fakes an accident, injury, theft, arson or other loss to collect money illegally from insurance companies, or soft fraud, in which normally honest people often tell "little white lies" to their insurance company for the purposes of filing or maximizing a claim.


Intellectual Property

Intellectual property, also known as IP, describes an item or idea that has been credited as belonging to somebody in some way. Common types of IPs would be patented or copyrighted materials.


Intelligence

Fraud Intelligence is the leading practical resource for the counter-fraud professional; it provides applied insight, analysis and tools to combat fraud and corruption, whether in the corporate or non-commercial sector, together with coverage of relevant statute and case law.


Intelligence Augmention

Intelligence Augmentation, or IA, is an alternative conceptualization of artificial intelligence that focuses on AI's assistive role, emphasizing the fact that cognitive technology is designed to enhance human intelligence rather than replace it. The choice of the word augmented, which means "to improve," reinforces the role human intelligence plays when using machine learning and deep learning algorithms to discover relationships and solve problems.


Internal Fraud (Insider Fraud)

Internal fraud occurs when an employee makes a false representation, fails to disclose information, or abuses a position of trust either for personal gain or to cause losses to others. Internal fraud can range from compromising customer or payroll data to inflating expenses to petty theft. Often referred to as occupational fraud, these schemes can be planned or unplanned and opportunistic or linked to organized criminal networks. When more than one employee is involved in the scheme, it is referred to as collusion and the average losses to the organization are greater.


Interoperability

Interoperability describes the ability of computer systems or software to exchange and make use of information. Interoperability requires mechanical compatibility among the systems, and it is only able to take results from where profitable contracts have been settled among the systems.


Inventory Fraud

Inventory fraud involves the theft of physical inventory items and the misstatement of inventory records on a company's financial statements. A small business may be a victim of fraud perpetrated by one of its employees, or the business itself may engage in fraudulent activities to trick shareholders and tax agencies. Inventory contains rare materials and uncompleted or completed items that are normally stored in a storage room.


Investment Fraud

Investment fraud is any scheme or deception relating to investments that affect a person or company. Investment fraud includes illegal insider trading, fraudulent stock manipulation, prime bank investment schemes and hundreds of other types of financial scams.


Invisible Web

The Invisible Web is the part of the World Wide Web, which is not indexable by search engines and is therefore invisible. In contrast to the Surface Web, the Invisible Web consists of data and information that cannot be searched with search engines for various reasons.


IOD - Impersonation of the Deceased fraud

IOD or Impersonation of the Deceased fraud is defined as a type of identity theft that occurs when an individual utilizes the information and personal data of a deceased person in an attempt to fraudulently obtain credit, financial details, or other identity related criminal acts.


IoT Botnet

A botnet is a collection of internet-connected devices that an attacker has compromised. Botnets act as a force multiplier for individual attackers, cyber-criminal groups and nation-states looking to disrupt or break into their targets’ systems. Commonly used in distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, botnets can also take advantage of their collective computing power to send large volumes of spam, steal credentials at scale, or spy on people and organizations.


IP Address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a rational numeric address that is assigned to each computer, printer, or some other device that is considered to be a part of a TCP/IP-based network. An IP address is the main element on which the network structure design is built, and there is no network that could ever exist without any IP address.


IP Address Verification

Internet Protocol or IP Address Verification could be defined as a set of processes and procedures that ensure that everything you produce, buy, or sell on the Internet will have a legal and registered IP address.


Issuer (Issuing Bank)

The Issuing Bank is the financial institution which issues individuals with credit cards or debit cards and extends short-term lines of credit to purchase goods and services. Familiar issues include Bank of America, Wells Fargo, Citibank and The issuer settles card transactions for the purchaser or card holder whereas its counterpart the acquiring bank or merchant acquirer, is the bank that is responsible for settling credit and debit card transactions on behalf of the merchant. Issuers generally manage the credit and debit card programs on behalf of the card networks, such as Visa and Mastercard, and for their role in the card payment process, receive the majority of the interchange and other fees in a credit card and debit card transaction. Discover and American Express are both issuers and card networks.