Pagejacking is the process of illegally copying legitimate website content (usually, in the form of source code) to another website designed to replicate the original website. A pagejacker's intention is to illegally direct traffic from the original site to cloned Web pages. Pagejackers rely on search engines to index bogus site content to enable search result ranking and display with the original site.

Pass-Along Rate

A pass-along rate represents the percentage of people who pass on a message or file. Indeed, pass-along rates are a measure of word-of-mouth marketing. Objects typically passed include email messages, Web pages and multimedia files. Content typically passed includes humor and entertainment, late-breaking news, shopping specials, and technical gizmos.

Passive Authentication

In a passive authentication scenario a user is directed to a login page, and after logging in, the site directs the user back to the URL and allow the user to be authenticated on that site. The passive authentication can be achieved by using WS-Federation protocol or SAML 2.0.

Payables Fraud

Payable fraud, also known as AP fraud, is among the most ubiquitous and damaging of frauds that affect businesses of all sizes. It's also among the easiest frauds to perpetrate, since most of the money leaving a company legitimately goes through the accounts payable function.

Paying Personal Expenses

Paying personal expenses refers to the expenses of an individual that are not related to business or investment purposes. Personal expenses are not deductible unless specifically allowed under the tax law. Two examples of deductible personal expenses are medical expenses and personal property tax paid on personal-use property. Deductible expenses are returned when an employee creates and sends an invoice to the company, and in return the company will give them the money to pay those personal expenses.

Payment Application Data Security Standard

Payment Application Data Security Standard (PA-DSS) is a set of requirements that are intended to help software vendors to develop secure payment applications that support PCI DSS compliance.

Payment Fraud

Payment fraud is a blanket term for a variety of different frauds that all center around using false information or unauthorized means to make a purchase. This type of fraud can roughly be categorized into three kinds of situations; relating to fraudulent or illegal transactions, misplaced or stolen goods, and false requests for reimbursements or returns on goods.

Payment Gateway

A Payment Gateway processes credit card and debit card payments, as well as other forms of electronic payments, primarily on behalf of e-commerce and brick-and-mortar merchants. The Payment Gateway is responsible for authenticating, standardizing and relaying transaction data between the merchants and the payment processors. The payment gateway responsibilities include securing payment data according to PCI DSS standards, securely sending transaction data to the payment processor, and storing the transaction and subsequent settlement, refund and other financial event data for later access by the merchant. Banks often own the payment gateways, but payment service providers (PSPs) like PayPal, Square or Stripe can also create their own Payment Gateway software.

Payment Threshold

A payment threshold defines a situation in online marketing where an associate has to meet a certain criteria, generally a number of sales, before being paid by the affiliate company for their services.

Payment Verification

What is Payment Verification?

Payment verification is a crucial process that helps safeguard financial transactions from fraudulent activities. It involves the thorough examination and validation of payment information provided by users before authorizing a transaction. By confirming the legitimacy of payments, businesses can mitigate the risk of fraud, chargebacks, and unauthorized transactions, thereby ensuring a safe and trustworthy environment for both customers and merchants.

Here are some statistics about payment fraud:payment verification

These statistics highlight the importance of payment verification in preventing fraud and protecting businesses and consumers from financial losses.

Common Types of Verification

Address Verification System (AVS): AVS cross-references the billing address provided during a transaction with the address on file with the card-issuing bank. Any discrepancies could raise a red flag for potential fraud.

Card Verification Value (CVV): The CVV is a three or four-digit code found on the back of credit and debit cards. It adds an extra layer of security as it is not stored in the magnetic stripe or chip and must be entered during online transactions.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): This method requires users to provide a secondary piece of information, such as a one-time code sent to their mobile device, in addition to their payment credentials.

How Does Payment Verification Differ from Payment Authentication?

While verification focuses on confirming the accuracy of the provided payment details, authorization is the step that seeks approval from the issuing bank to complete the transaction. Payment authentication, on the other hand, is a broader term that encompasses various methods, including verification, designed to prevent unauthorized access and ensure the security of transactions.

Solutions for Payment Verification – AI Fraud Prevention with Verification

In today’s technologically advanced landscape, fraudsters continually adapt their tactics to exploit vulnerabilities. Traditional methods of payment verification may not be sufficient to combat the growing threat of fraud. As such, businesses are turning to AI-powered fraud prevention tools that integrate robust payment verification processes.

AI-driven solutions offer real-time analysis of payment data and user behavior, identifying suspicious patterns and swiftly detecting potential fraud attempts. By leveraging machine learning algorithms, these tools evolve and adapt to new threats, providing dynamic and reliable protection against ever-changing fraud schemes.’s Solution 

At, we recognize the criticality of safeguarding your business and customers against fraud. Our AI-powered fraud prevention platform seamlessly incorporates advanced payment verification capabilities to ensure the integrity of every transaction. With real-time analysis and comprehensive risk assessment, our solution empowers businesses to identify and prevent fraudulent activities before they cause harm.

Discover how’s Transaction AI solution can fortify your business against fraud threats. Book a demo today to explore the powerful features of our AI-driven platform and experience the peace of mind that comes with enhanced security. Safeguard your transactions and reputation with – your trusted partner in fraud prevention.


PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company that operates a universal online payment method that supports online money transfers. It also serves as an electrical substitute for the usual paper-based methods of checks and money orders. The company functions as a payment mainframe for online vendors, auction sites, and numerous other business users. These users are usually charged an interbank fee for profits such as one-click transactions and password memory. 


History of PayPal

The Beginning

PayPal, first founded as Confinity, resulted from a collaboration between Max Levchin, Peter Thiel, and Luke Nosek. They developed it as a digital wallet solution, a way to send payments through email, releasing its first iteration in 1999.

In 2000, Confinity merged with, an online banking service founded by Elon Musk. Peter Thiel then replaced Elon Musk as CEO in October 2000, and renamed Confinity to PayPal Holdings in 2001. They went public in 2002, at $13 per share, minting over $61 million.

Acquired by eBay

Within the same year, they were acquired by eBay, and the service supported 70% of auctions and transactions. Accordingly, it became the default payment method for online transactions on eBay.

Versus Anonymous

In July 2011, Anonymous was charged with attempting to disrupt PayPal operations. They attempted denial of service attacks in December of the previous year. These attacks were an act of retaliation against the company's denial to process donation transactions to WikiLeaks.

eBay and PayPal Part Ways

eBay and PayPal split into two separate companies in 2015, but their professional partnership remained alive. The latter continues to offer a payment option for eBay shoppers, but not as a transaction processing platform.

Social Media Ventures

Instagram and PayPal partnered in 2019 for Instragam shopping, offering "Checkout on Instagram" with the latter as part of the feature. In 2020 they acquired Honey, a browser extension that scrubs for the largest discounts available at various shopping locations.

Why is it so Popular?

PayPal operates in 202 global markets and has 377 million active accounts. It grew to this popularity due to the ease of use they offered for transactions.

Users could transfer money without credit cards or paper options and could do so between different banking institutions and credit unions. This was especially helpful in cases where people could not obtain credit cards due to their financial history. In these cases, it acted as a prepaid "card", in which one could transfer money from their debit card to create a "balance" to then use to pay for transactions.

It also offered automatic currency conversion options for those making international transactions. Due to their investments in transaction security and providing a variety of options and personalizations for users, PayPal has sustained itself as a major payment platform.

What Does PayPal have to do with Fraud?

While PayPal has invested in securing its platform over the years, the platform is still vulnerable to fraudulent activity and has a history of combatting it.


International hackers targeted PayPal accounts, transferring small amounts of money out of multiple accounts. In response, they developed an AI-powered fraud detection system to detect potentially fraudulent transactions. Peter Thiel, inspired by this development, went on to create Palantir.


In this instance, a PayPal service provider charged 150,000 Spanish cardholders an unauthorized €15. Most funds were returned.

Retaliation for Banning Transactions

As stated earlier, PayPal fell victim to a denial of service attack by hacktivist group Anonymous, in retaliation against their banning of donations to WikiLeaks. They may continue to face these types of attacks due to their controversial banning of several transactions and accounts associated with human rights activism or non-traditional work.

Additionally, PayPal's service acting as a "prepaid" card of sorts provides an opportunity for scammers to facilitate money laundering through their service. PayPal does comply with AML standards set forth by government cybersecurity jurisdictions, but the service still faces audits for failed compliance and deals with laundering today.'s Protection and Detection Solutions offers a wide variety of products and solutions to combat money laundering, business email compromise, and invoice fraud. Contact us for a free demo today, and product recommendations and best practices for your business.

Paypal Fraud

What is PayPal Fraud?

PayPal fraud is fraud related to using the paypal payment system. It can be initiated or performed through emails, phishing sites, malevolent ads, doubtful links, and many more. These scams try to appear authentic in order to trick users into releasing personal information, such as usernames and passwords, or to illegally obtain payments and payment info. 

A fake paypal invoice or email may look like the consumer has to take an action by clicking on any fraudulent links. If you review an item purchased that was not made by you on your account, report a problem, select the transaction, hit dispute and click continue. It’s extremely important to report any suspected instances of Paypal fraud immediately after you view your transactions to protect your account and information.

How to Protect Against PayPal Fraud

The most effective protection against PayPal fraud is education on what to look out for. Phishing emails can usually be spotted under close scrutiny. There are tells like misspellings or a “re:” at the beginning of the subject line. 

If you receive an email or notification that you owe money or there’s been a mistake with your account, it’s almost definitely a phishing attempt. To double check, log into your account through the PayPal website rather than through any links present on the notification. 

Fraudsters will sometimes also try to tempt their victims with offers of payment that sound too good to be true. Sounding too good to be true is a major indication that it isn’t true. Solutions offers a variety of solutions using AI and machine learning to prevent fraud attacks of all kinds and therefore, your bottom line. We offer dark web monitoring, analytics and reporting, identity protection services, and more.

Contact us for a demo and recommendations for fraud prevention and identity verification.

Payroll Fraud

Payroll Fraud is a category of accounting fraud typically carried out by people who have access to employee information, their incomes or their wages. Companies that have not applied the accurate controls in their financial section – particularly in times of financial distress – will face more complex fraud risks than other companies.

PCI Compliance

What is PCI Compliance?

Payment card industry (PCI) compliance refers to the practical and operational principles that companies need to follow to ensure that credit card information provided by cardholders is secure. PCI compliance is prescribed by the PCI Standards Council, and all companies that automatically store, process or convey credit card data are required to follow these procedures. Created in 2004, PCI compliance aims to secure credit and debit card transactions against data theft and fraud.

PCI Compliance Infographic

Compliance is validated on an annual or quarterly basis and evaluated by a PCI auditor. The system is divided into four levels. Methods range depending on the volume of transactions handled:

  1. Highest Level (1): Applies to companies who process more than 6 million credit or debit card transactions annually. These merchants must have an internal audit once a year. Additionally, merchants must submit to a PCI scan by an Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV) each quarter.
  2. Level 2: Applies to companies processing between 1 and 6 million annual credit or debit card transactions. Requirements include a yearly Self-Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ). A quarterly PCI scan may also be required.
  3. Level 3: Applies to companies processing between 20,000 and 1 million transactions annually. They must complete a yearly SAQ. A quarterly PCI scan may also be required.
  4. Level 4: Applies to sellers processing less than 20,000 transactions annually. These merchants must complete a yearly SAQ. A quarterly PCI scan may also be required.

Basics Needed for PCI Compliance

  1. A Secure network with original passwords.
  2. Secure and encrypted cardholder data.
  3. Vulnerability management.
  4. Anti-virus software that is used and regularly updated.
  5. Secure systems and applications for users.
  6. Restricted and controlled access to cardholder information.
  7. Consistent network monitoring and testing.
  8. Information security policy and maintenance of that policy.

PCI Compliance and Digital Payments

With the rise in new payment technologies, such as contactless payments and digital wallets, payment fraud has never been more sophisticated Likewise, the financial rewards for the perpetrators have never been greater.

These new changes will affect all industries, from banking to e-commerce. Experts believe these new technologies will soon represent the majority of all transactions.

Since then, fraudsters have taken advantage of businesses ' limited ability to adapt. Even among well-funded organizations, resources may not be used properly. For example, key resources and critical forensic data, investigative expertise, and data science capabilities are broadly scattered. Actions occur across cybersecurity, accounting, fraud, compliance, legal, and IT departments. With this comes little coordination or sharing in between departments. This is where PCI compliance is vital, and also where fraudsters have opportunities.

PCI Compliance and Beyond

Combat fraud leveraging data science and analytics, gradually moving away from a narrow focus on false positives and loss prevention. Harness’s capabilities to reduce losses, detect and prevent emerging fraud, and enhance the customer experience. Get in touch with us today to learn more.


The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, also known as PCI DSS, is an IT security standard for companies that handle branded credit cards from the major card providers. The PCI Standard is mandated by the card brands and administered by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council. The standard was created to increase controls around cardholder data to reduce credit card fraud.


A persona is an artificial profile for a type of customer, created on certain identifying criteria. Personas are generally used in marketing efforts as a way of figuring out how to best target different segmented audiences.

Personal Details Compromise

Personal Details Compromise, also known as a data breach, is the planned or unplanned relief of protected or confidential data in an unreliable environment. Other types of this occurrence include unplanned data revelation, data leaks and data spills. A data breach is basically a security occurrence in which delicate, secured or confidential data is imitated, conveyed, observed, taken or used by a person who is not entitled to do so.

Personal Information

Personal Information can be described as any accurate or personal information, whether documented or not, about a recognizable person. Personal Information can include name, e-mail, address, civilization, race, identification number, occupation history, and other more related information.

Personally Identifiable Information

Personally identifiable information is any data that could potentially identify a specific individual. Any information that can be used to distinguish one person from another and can be used for de-anonymizing anonymous data can be considered PII.

Phantom Debt

Phantom debt collection fraud appears in many variants, but the most common component among them is the claim that a customer is indebted and has to pay it, or else they will incur heavy penalties. Regardless of whether the customer really took out a loan or not, they may accept a call later during which they will be asked to pay the money of the loan.


Pharming is a cyber-attack aimed at exchanging traffic from an official website to a different website. The second website is usually a copy of the original, designed to gather personal information such as credit card numbers. Pharming could be performed either by varying the hosts folder on a victim's computer or by misusing a weakness in DNS server software. Pharming involves undefended access to a target computer, such as a customer's home computer, rather than a corporate server.

Phishing and Pharming

Phishing and Pharming are two methods of cyberattacks to lure a victim to false websites in order to send them malware or get his/her personal information. Phishing involves getting a user to enter personal information via a fake website. Pharming involves modifying DNS entries, which causes users to be directed to the wrong website when they visit a certain Web address.

Phishing Kit

The phishing kit can be described as a collection of several software programs that allows an individual to manage and launch specific types of campaigns and phishing scams. The phishing kit makes it easy for those with even few technical skills to launch some kind of phishing exploit.

Phishing Schemes

Phishing schemes involve getting a user to enter a website and input their personal information for the fraudster to then steal and take advantage of. This website often times emulates the design of a legitimate business's website, in the hopes of tricking people into entering their information on a site they think is real and trustworthy. Phishing is usually performed through deceptive emails or phone calls, but other methods exist.

Phone Verification

It is the process of identifying if a number used by a user is valid or not, as well as if a phone number being used is the phone number of the person trying to use it. Phone number verification is used in different forms of multi-factor authentication.


Plagiarism refers to the illegal act of copying someone’s work and presenting it as one’s own original work. This act may include the stealing of handwriting, online drawings, or any other online aspect that can be stolen and presented as original. Plagiarism is believed to be a crime in almost all the countries over the world.


On the internet, a platform refers to a virtual space where a company, a person, or a community can create its own page or website, or even a network that can serve the people who come to visit. This type of business is referred to an e-commerce and most international organizations have their own online platforms.

Point-To-Point Encryption

P2PE, or point-to-point encryption, refers to all the processes and tools involved in protecting different online procedures and actions throughout all steps of the process. It is usually provided by a third-party, and often when an organization purchases this solution from an outside party, that party will then help the company in setting up the encryption.

Policy Violation

A policy violation occurs when a user records an expense with details violating the company's expensing policies. There are different types of sanctions which are put in place in the event of a breach of policy, and some of these sanctions are set by the authorities. Policies and sanctions can differ across fields and organizations, based on many different factors.


Privacy is the practice or idea of keeping certain information a secret from a certain group. It also describes the capability of the individual to protect the information he or she considers personal.

Processing Unauthorized Payroll

The processing of unauthorized payroll refers to the act of identifying whether payroll has been calculated for an unauthorized person in the organization's list. This process is done to prevent payroll fraud, where a payroll manager knowingly approves fraudulent payroll transactions, generally with the purpose of taking that money for themselves.


Proofing refers to the act of verifying and authenticating the identity of legitimate customers. Identity proofing is required when a person wants to withdraw money or take any other confidential information from online resources.

Proxy Piercing

What is Proxy Piercing?

Proxy piercing refers to a technology that enables hosts to determine whether a person is making a proxy purchase or not. A proxy purchase describes a transaction made where a customer disguises their IP via the use of a proxy server. 

Proxy piercing allows one to see if there is a proxy being used by a customer attempting a transaction. Then, depending on the level of the piercing program, it will “pierce” the proxy server and determine the original IP of the transaction. At an even higher level, proxy piercing can also determine the physical location of that user.

proxy piercing

Why is Proxy Piercing Important in Fraud Detection?

Fraudsters often use proxy servers to mask their true identities when making fraudulent purchases or chargebacks. They do this to avoid detection that the address on their payment method does not match their IP address’s geolocation. Proxy piercing cuts through that protective wall, identifying whether a purchaser is using a proxy. It also determines to what extent, and the true IP address of the purchaser. 

Once this address is found, verification services then take over. They weigh the true IP address against the location of a purchase’s shipping address or common bank transactions to determine if the purchase is fraudulent. In addition, this IP address can be weighed against the frequency of past transactions and such frequencies in certain locations. 

Proxies for Consumers Aren't Always Bad

Not all purchases using proxies are fraudulent - some consumers use proxies to avoid sharing location and behavior data with browsers. Or, they use them to avoid targeted ads and the sale of their internet behavior and social network data. They may use VPNs to avoid tracking or data spying on public shared networks, like those at cafes or libraries. They may also use proxy servers to avoid government censorship, to access restricted websites in their countries like YouTube or Facebook. Unfortunately, the use of these proxies can open consumers and businesses up to potential phishing or pharming attacks. This vulnerability contributes to fraudsters obtaining credentials they can sell as part of “fullz” packages.

Fraud Detection and Protection with

Through IP verification and Dark Web Monitoring, among other solutions,'s suite of AI-powered fraud detection and protection services can help your institution combat fraudsters.

Weighing IP geolocation data and dark web activity allows for better tracking of fraudulent purchases. Additionally, these services weigh past fraudulent activity against the IPs or credentials in use. Therefore, if a user employs a proxy server to make fraudulent transactions, our services can identify how problematic the true IP is.

Contact us today for recommendations and a demo of our services:

Purchase Amount Filter

A purchase amount filter is a technology, method, or practice that allows e-commerce website hosts to identify or prevent scams that occur with ease by setting up limitations on the amount of a product that can be purchased at one time.

Pyramid Schemes

A pyramid scheme is a fraudulent business model where an initial group of people recruit others to join their company, but charge them an upfront-fee in order to become an employee, and then urges those new employees to recruit others and get up-front fees from them as well. As new recruits join, their upfront fees go towards paying earlier members of the pyramid scheme, and so the goal of the business is really just to trick people into joining the company and paying this fee; the company may have an actual product to sell, but selling the product is often not the focus of this business.