Law Enforcement

Law enforcement could be described as a system where a number of members of society act in a systematic way to enforce the law, determining, discouraging, assimilating or even punishing those who break the rules and regulations that are known and governed by that society.


Lending (also known as "financing") in its most general sense is the temporary giving of money or property to another person with the expectation that it will be repaid. In a business and financial context, lending includes many different types of commercial loans. Lenders are businesses or financial institutions that lend money, with the expectation that it will be paid back, generally with some type of interest. The lender is paid interest on the loan as the cost of receiving the loan. The higher the risk of not being paid back, the higher the interest rate.

Level of Assurance

A Level of Assurance, as defined by the by ISO/IEC 29115 Standard, describes the degree of confidence in the processes leading up to and including an authentication. It provides assurance that the entity claiming a particular identity, is the entity to which that identity was assigned.

Liability Shift

Liability shift generally refers to the responsibility of covering the losses from fraudulent transactions moving from the merchant to the issuing bank when the merchant has authenticated the transaction using any of the 3D Secure (3DS) protocols. If the merchant does not authenticate the credit card transaction with a 3D Secure method, the merchant remains liable for chargebacks and fraud losses.

Log File

A log file is a file that keeps a registry of events, processes, messages and communication between various communicating software applications and the operating system. Log files are present in executable software, operating systems and programs whereby all the messages and process details are recorded. Every executable file produces a log file where all activities are noted.


A login is a set of identifications used to validate a user: this generally involves a username and password that allows a person to log in to a computer system, network, mobile device, or user account. A login might contain further information, such as a PIN number, passcode, or passphrase. Logins are usually used by websites, computer applications, and mobile apps to verify a customer's identity. They are a safety measure aimed to avoid illegal access to private data or assets.

Login Authentication

The process that recognizes and validates a user's identity is known as login authentication. A common example is having to enter both a username and password into a website in order to gain access to an account.

Lottery Scam

A lottery scam is a type of advance-fee fraud which begins with an unexpected email notification, phone call, or mail-letter (sometimes including a large check) explaining that "You have won!" a large sum of money in a lottery. The recipient of the message—the target of the scam—is usually told to keep the notice secret, and is then solicited for some amount of money in order to "confirm" the prize they have won.

Loyalty Points Fraud

Loyalty points fraud occurs when a fraudster gains access to somebody else's loyalty rewards points account, and then redeems these points for products that will benefit the fraudster. This type of fraud is becoming more popular as card fraud becomes harder, and because loyalty point accounts aren't checked for malicious behavior very often, allowing this fraud to go undiscovered for long periods.